Drupal blog posts http://veeshomeinspections.com/blog en Adjustable steel Columns http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2128 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Adjustable steel Columns </span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p><span style="font-size:15px; text-align:left; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px"><span style="display:inline !important"><span style="float:none"><span style="color:#222222"><span style="cursor:text"><span style="font-family:Arial,Verdana,sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px">Adjustable Steel Columns Adjustable steel columns, also known as screw jacks and beam jacks, are hollow steel posts designed to provide structural support. An attached threaded adjustment mechanism is used to adjust the height of the post. A few facts about adjustable steel columns: • They are usually found in basements. • In some parts of North America, adjustable steel columns are called lally columns, although this term sometimes applies to columns that are concrete-filled and non-adjustable. • They can be manufactured as multi-part assembles, sometimes called telescopic steel columns, or as single-piece columns. The following are potentially defective conditions:<img alt="jack" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="d88bfe6d-cbab-43e4-8ae7-c84eff747170" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/jacks.jpg" class="align-right" /> • The post is less than 3 inches in diameter. According to the 2012 International Residential Code (IRC), Section R407.3, columns (including adjustable steel columns)... "shall not be less than 3-inch diameter standard pipe." Poles smaller than 3 inches violate the IRC, although they are not necessarily defective. A 2½-inch post may be adequate to support the load above it, while a 4-inch post can buckle if the load exceeds the structural capacity of the post. Structural engineers -- not inspectors -- decide whether adjustable steel posts are of adequate size. • The post is not protected by rust-inhibitive paint. The IRC Section R407.2 states: "All surfaces (inside and outside) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of rust-inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and steel treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance." Inspectors will not be able to identify paint as rust-inhibitive. In dry climates where rust is not as much of a problem, rust-inhibitive paint may not be necessary. Visible signs of rust constitute a potential defect. • The post is not straight. According to some sources, the maximum lateral displacement between the top and bottom of the post should not exceed 1 inch. However, tolerable lateral displacement is affected by many factors, such as the height and diameter of the post. The post should also not bend at its mid-point. Bending is an indication that the column cannot bear the weight of the house. • The column is not mechanically connected to the floor. An inspector may not be able to confirm whether a connection between the post and the floor exists if this connection has been covered by concrete. • The column is not connected to the beam. The post should be mechanically connected to the beam above to provide additional resistance against lateral displacement. • More than 3 inches of the screw thread are exposed. • There are cracks in upstairs walls. This condition may indicate a failure of the columns. In summary, InterNACHI inspectors may want to inspect adjustable steel columns for problems, although a structural engineer may be required to confirm serious issues.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Sun, 05/20/2018 - 22:29</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Mon, 21 May 2018 02:29:12 +0000 steve 2128 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Attic Pull-Down Ladders http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2126 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Attic Pull-Down Ladders</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p style="margin:20px 0px 10px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Attic pull-down ladders, also called attic pull-down stairways, are collapsible ladders that are permanently attached to the attic floor. Occupants can use these ladders to access their attics</span></span></span><img alt="ladder" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="43ecd884-ed9d-4ddb-a798-ce7fceaa86c4" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/ladder.jpg" class="align-right" /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif"> without being required to carry a portable ladder.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Common Defects</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Homeowners, not professional carpenters, usually install attic pull-down ladders. Evidence of this distinction can be observed in consistently shoddy and dangerous work that rarely meets safety standards. Some of the more common defective conditions observed by inspectors include: </span></span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">cut bottom cord of structural truss. Often, homeowners will cut through a structural member in the field while installing a pull-down ladder, unknowingly weakening the structure. Structural members should not be modified in the field without an engineer’s approval; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">fastened with improper nails or screws. Homeowners often use drywall or deck screws rather than the standard 16d penny nails or ¼” x 3” lag screws. Nails and screws that are intended for other purposes may have reduced shear strength and they may not support pull-down ladders; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">fastened with an insufficient number of nails or screws. Manufacturers provide a certain number of nails with instructions that they all be used, and they probably do this for a good reason. Inspectors should be wary of “place nail here” notices that are nowhere near any nails; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">lack of insulation. Hatches in many houses (especially older ones) are not likely to be weather-stripped and/or insulated. An uninsulated attic hatch allows air from the attic to flow freely into the home, which may cause the heating or cooling system to run overtime. An attic hatch cover box can be installed to increase energy savings; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">loose mounting bolts. This condition is more often caused by age rather than installation, although improper installation will hasten the loosening process; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">attic pull-down ladders are cut too short. Stairs should reach the floor; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">attic pull-down ladders are cut too long. This causes pressure at the folding hinge, which can cause breakage; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">improper or missing fasteners;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">compromised fire barrier when installed in the garage;</span></span><br />  </li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">attic ladder frame is not properly secured to the ceiling opening; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">closed ladder is covered with debris, such as blown insulation or roofing material shed during roof work. Inspectors can place a sheet on the floor beneath the ladder to catch whatever debris may fall onto the floor; and </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">cracked steps. This defect is a problem with wooden ladders. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">In sliding pull-down ladders, there is a potential for the ladder to slide down quickly without notice. Always pull the ladder down slowly and cautiously. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif">Safety tip for inspectors: Place an </span></span></span><a href="https://www.nachi.org/stop-signs.htm" target="_blank"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#3071ed"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">"InterNACHI Inspector at work!" stop sign</span></span></span></a><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;Arial&quot;,sans-serif"> nearby while mounting the ladder. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Relevant Codes</span></span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">The 2009 edition of the <i>International Building Code </i>(IBC) and the 2006 edition of the <i>International Residential Code</i> (IRC) offer guidelines regarding attic access, although not specifically pull-down ladders. Still, the information might be of some interest to inspectors. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">2009 IBC (Commercial Construction):</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">1209.2 Attic Spaces. An opening not less than 20 inches by 30 inches (559 mm by 762 mm) shall be provided to any attic area having a clear height of over 30 inches (762 mm). A 30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear headroom in the attic space shall be provided at or above the access opening. </span></span></span></i></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">2006 IRC (Residential Construction):</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">R807.1 Attic Access. Buildings with combustible ceiling or roof construction shall have an attic access opening to attic areas that exceed 30 square feet (2.8m squared) and have a vertical height of 30 inches (762 mm) or more. The rough-framed opening shall not be less than 22 inches by 30 inches, and shall be located in a hallway or readily accessible location. A 30-inch (762 mm) minimum unobstructed headroom in the attic space shall be provided at some point above the access opening.</span></span></span></i></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Tips that inspectors can pass on to their clients:</span></span></span></b></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Do not allow children to enter the attic through an attic access. The lanyard attached to the attic stairs should be short enough that children cannot reach it. Parents can also lock the attic ladder so that a key or combination is required to access it. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">If possible, avoid carrying large loads into the attic. While properly installed stairways may safely support an adult man, they might fail if he is carrying, for instance, a bag full of bowling balls. Such trips can be split up to reduce the weight load. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Replace an old, rickety wooden ladder with a new one. Newer aluminum models are often lightweight, sturdy and easy to install. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">In summary, attic pull-down ladders are prone to a number of defects, most of which are due to improper installation. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"> </p> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Sun, 04/22/2018 - 22:37</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Mon, 23 Apr 2018 02:37:53 +0000 steve 2126 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Dryer Vent Safety http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2124 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Dryer Vent Safety</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p style="margin:20px 0px 10px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Clothes dryers evaporate the water from wet clothing by blowing hot air past them while they tumble inside a spinning drum. Heat is provided by an electrical heating element or gas burner. Some heavy garment loads can contain more than a gallon of water which, during the drying process, will become airborne water vapor and leave the dryer and home through an exhaust duct (more commonly known as a dryer vent).</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">A vent that exhausts moist air to the home's exterior has a number of requirements:</span></span></span><img align="right" alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/inspect-dryer-vent.jpg" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/inspect-dryer-vent.jpg" style="width:306px; height:306px" /></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">It should be connected. The connection is usually behind the dryer but may be beneath it. Look carefully to make sure it’s actually connected.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">It should not be restricted. Dryer vents are often made from flexible plastic or metal duct, which may be easily kinked or crushed where they exit the dryer and enter the wall or floor. This is often a problem since dryers tend to be tucked away into small areas with little room to work. Vent elbows are available which is designed to turn 90° in a limited space without restricting the flow of exhaust air. Restrictions should be noted in the inspector's report. Airflow restrictions are a potential fire hazard.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">One of the reasons that restrictions are a potential fire hazard is that, along with water vapor evaporated out of wet clothes, the exhaust stream carries lint – highly flammable particles of clothing made of cotton and polyester. Lint can accumulate in an exhaust duct, reducing the dryer’s ability to expel heated water vapor, which then accumulates as heat energy within the machine. As the dryer overheats, mechanical failures can trigger sparks, which can cause lint trapped in the dryer vent to burst into flames. This condition can cause the whole house to burst into flames. Fires generally originate within the dryer but spread by escaping through the ventilation duct, incinerating trapped lint, and following its path into the building wall.</span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">InterNACHI believes that house fires caused by dryers are far more common than are generally believed, a fact that can be appreciated upon reviewing statistics from the National Fire Protection Agency. Fires caused by dryers in 2005 were responsible for approximately 13,775 house fires, 418 injuries, 15 deaths, and $196 million in property damage. Most of these incidents occur in residences and are the result of improper lint cleanup and maintenance. Fortunately, these fires are very easy to prevent.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><br /><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">The recommendations outlined below reflect International Residential Code (IRC) SECTION M1502 CLOTHES DRYER EXHAUST guidelines:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">M1502.5 Duct construction.</span></span></span></i></b><br /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif"><i>Exhaust ducts shall be constructed of minimum 0.016-inch-thick (0.4 mm) rigid metal ducts, having smooth interior surfaces, with joints running in the direction of air flow. Exhaust ducts shall not be connected with sheet-metal screws or fastening means which extend into the duct.</i></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">This means that the flexible, ribbed vents used in the past should no longer be used. They should be noted as a potential fire hazard if observed during an inspection.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">M1502.6 Duct length.</span></span></span></i></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><i><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">The maximum length of a clothes dryer exhaust duct shall not exceed 25 feet (7,620 mm) from the dryer location to the wall or roof termination. The maximum length of the duct shall be reduced 2.5 feet (762 mm) for each 45-degree (0.8 rad) bend, and 5 feet (1,524 mm) for each 90-degree (1.6 rad) bend. The maximum length of the exhaust duct does not include the transition duct.</span></span></span></i></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">This means that vents should also be as straight as possible and cannot be longer than 25 feet. Any 90-degree turns in the vent reduce this 25-foot number by 5 feet, since these turns restrict airflow.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><br /><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">A couple of exceptions exist:</span></span></span></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">The IRC will defer to the manufacturer’s instruction, so if the manufacturer’s recommendation permits a longer exhaust vent, that’s acceptable. An inspector probably won’t have the manufacturer’s recommendations, and even if they do, confirming compliance with them exceeds the scope of a General Home Inspection. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">The IRC will allow large radius bends to be installed to reduce restrictions at turns, but confirming compliance requires performing engineering calculation in accordance with the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, which definitely lies beyond the scope of a General Home Inspection.</span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">M1502.2 Duct termination.</span></span></span></i></b><img align="right" alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/dryer-vent-safety.jpg" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/dryer-vent-safety.jpg" style="width:310px; height:278px" /><br /><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif"><i>Exhaust ducts shall terminate on the outside of the building or shall be in accordance with the dryer manufacturer’s installation instructions. Exhaust ducts shall terminate not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in any direction from openings into buildings. Exhaust duct terminations shall be equipped with a backdraft damper. Screens shall not be installed at the duct termination</i>.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Inspectors will see many dryer vents terminate in crawlspaces or attics where they deposit moisture, which can encourage the growth of mold, wood decay, or other material problems. Sometimes they will terminate just beneath attic ventilators. This is a defective installation. They must terminate at the exterior and away from a door or window. Also, screens may be present at the duct termination and can accumulate lint and should be noted as improper. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">M1502.3 Duct size.</span></span></span></i></b><br /><i><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">The diameter of the exhaust duct shall be as required by the clothes dryer’s listing and the manufacturer’s installation instructions.</span></span></span></i></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Look for the exhaust duct size on the data plate.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">M1502.4 Transition ducts.</span></span></span></i></b><br /><span style="font-size:13pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif"><i>Transition ducts shall not be concealed within construction. Flexible transition ducts used to connect the dryer to the exhaust duct system shall be limited to single lengths not to exceed 8 feet (2438 mm), and shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 2158A.</i></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Required support for lengthy ducts is covered by the following section:</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">M1502.4.2 Duct installation.</span></span></span></i></b><br /><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Exhaust ducts shall be supported at intervals not to exceed 12 feet (3,658 mm) and shall be secured in place. The insert end of the duct shall extend into the adjoining duct or fitting in the direction of airflow. Exhaust duct joints shall be sealed in accordance with Section M1601.4.1 and shall be mechanically fastened. Ducts shall not be joined with screws or similar fasteners that protrude more than 1/8-inch (3.2 mm) into the inside of the duct</span></span></span></i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><br />  </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">In general, an inspector will not know specific manufacturer’s recommendations or local applicable codes and will not be able to confirm the dryer vent's compliance to them, but will be able to point out issues that may need to be corrected. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"> </p> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Sat, 03/10/2018 - 21:54</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Sun, 11 Mar 2018 02:54:47 +0000 steve 2124 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Why Realtors Choose VEES http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2123 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Why Realtors Choose VEES </span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p> </p> <p><strong>Why Realtors Choose VEES Home Inspections</strong></p> <p>At VEES Home Inspections we understand the importance of good customer service. Any recommendations from your list of inspection companies (to your clients) is something we take seriously. Here are four reasons why you should feel at ease in putting VEES Home Inspections at the top of your list – for your next transaction:</p> <ul><li><strong>We Understand The Value Of A Referral </strong>– We understand that this may just be one inspection for us, but it is potentially months of hard work for you-with a lot riding on it. We will work in harmony with your goals, time schedules and your successes!</li> <li><strong>Will Take Care Of Your Client </strong>– We know that our job is a reflection on you, and therefore want to make sure that your customer is taken care of in every aspect. Our services don’t stop the day of the inspection . . . they begin that day!</li> <li><strong>Accountability – Licensed and Certified in WI</strong>, - Certified and Nationally tested in Mn,  we have set the bar high – in our commitment to local, state and national inspection associations. This is our way of providing excellent service to you and to your clients! members of InterNACHI, NHIE, SPAAR, NAR and Showingtime.</li> <li><strong>Safety </strong>– Not only is our accountability to inspection standards and continuing educations set high, but much of what we look for in an inspection relates to safety. The safety of your client is one of our highest objectives, in each and every inspection we perform. What does this mean to you? Their safety – and your peace of mind.</li> </ul><p>As an extra bonus to your Clients we offer at no additional charge: Team Inspections, state of the art reporting (same day) and online scheduling, Thermal imaging, Drone Aerial surveying home maintenance book and a Energy Report.</p> <ul><li>Licensed and Certified Home Inspection Company,</li> <li>Member of St Paul Area Association of Realtors</li> <li>Members of National Association of Realtors</li> <li>Supra e-key Holder</li> <li>Members of Showingtime</li> <li>Wisconsin License # 3070-106</li> <li>Certified Member of interNACHI NACHI17032507</li> <li>Nationally tested and Recognized, NHIE</li> <li>Online scheduling and payment</li> <li>Same day report upon completion</li> <li>Another ancillary service we offer for real estate transaction:</li> <li>Well Water Testing</li> <li>Radon testing</li> <li>30 + years of Real Estate experience</li> </ul><p> </p> <p><strong>If you allow your Clients, to be our Clients, They will Thank You!!</strong></p></div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Mon, 02/26/2018 - 23:18</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Tue, 27 Feb 2018 04:18:07 +0000 steve 2123 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Thermal Imaging Inspection http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2122 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Thermal Imaging Inspection</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><header class="node__header" style="box-sizing:border-box; color:#363636; display:block; font-family:sans-serif; font-size:16px; font-style:normal; font-variant:normal; font-weight:400; letter-spacing:normal; orphans:2; text-align:left; text-decoration:none; text-transform:none; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px; white-space:normal; word-spacing:0px"><h1 class="node__title" style="margin-bottom:16px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"> </h1> </header><div class="node__content" style="text-align:left; -webkit-text-stroke-width:0px"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single" property="schema:text" style="margin-bottom:16px"> <div class="field__items"> <div class="field__item" property="schema:text"> <p data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" style="margin-bottom:20px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><img alt="infrared.png" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="http://veeshomeinspections.com/sites/default/files/sites/default/files/inline-images/infrared.png" style="box-sizing:border-box; display:inline-block; height:373px; line-height:0px; max-width:1120.32px; vertical-align:middle; width:960px" /><span style="box-sizing:border-box" title="Click and drag to resize">​</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p class="text-align-center" style="margin-bottom:10.66px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><strong style="box-sizing:border-box"><font color="#000000"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font face="Calibri"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font size="3"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;">Infrared thermal technology used in every Home Inspection performed By VEES Home Inspections</font></font></font></font></font></font></strong></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:20px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><font color="#000000"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font face="Calibri"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font size="3"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;">Since a general home inspection is a non-invasive, visual examination of the accessible areas of a residential property, inspectors won’t be opening walls and looking inside. Just like using a flashlight to see items in the dark, we use an infrared camera on all our inspections because it can help us see things that aren’t visible by the naked eye. If an inspector told you they didn’t own a flashlight or were going to charge more to use it, you would look for another inspector. You should think of infrared thermography the same way you do as a flashlight. When you hire an inspector to evaluate the condition of a home, make sure they are properly equipped.</font></font></font></font></font></font></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:20px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><img alt="infrared-2.png" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="http://veeshomeinspections.com/sites/default/files/sites/default/files/inline-images/infrared-2.png" style="box-sizing:border-box; display:inline-block; height:166px; line-height:0px; max-width:1120.32px; vertical-align:middle; width:347px" /></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10.66px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><font color="#000000"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font face="Calibri"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font size="3"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;">It’s our opinion that if an inspector isn’t using infrared while inspecting a home, then they are only doing half an inspection.</font></font></font></font></font></font></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10.66px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><font color="#000000"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font face="Calibri"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font size="3"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;">Moisture is hard to see or could be covered up with a fresh coat of paint, VEES Home Inspection , Sees what Most don't see. Hire VEES in your Home inspection Needs, or moisture intrusion Inspections. </font></font></font></font></font></font></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10.66px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><font color="#000000"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font face="Calibri"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;"><font size="3"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;">Moisture causes Mold and deterioration of building products.</font></font></font></font></font></font></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10.66px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><font color="#000000"><font face="Calibri"><font size="3"><font style="background-color: transparent; box-sizing: border-box;">Infrared can see hot and cold spots, below is more Imaging Examples on Energy losses , Moisture issues and hot Electrical Safety Issues that are hard to find without the aid of a Thermal Imaging Camera.</font></font></font></font></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> <p data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" style="margin-bottom:20px; margin-left:0px; margin-right:0px; margin-top:0px; text-align:center"><span style="font-size:16px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="color:#363636"><span style="font-family:sans-serif"><span style="font-style:normal"><span style="font-variant:normal"><span style="font-weight:400"><span style="letter-spacing:normal"><span style="orphans:2"><span style="text-decoration:none"><span style="text-transform:none"><span style="white-space:normal"><span style="word-spacing:0px"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="clear:none"><span style="display:block"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><span style="box-sizing:border-box"><img alt="115896d160cb74be1f37d7f8f3fb2ce0.png" data-entity-type="" data-entity-uuid="" src="http://veeshomeinspections.com/sites/default/files/sites/default/files/inline-images/115896d160cb74be1f37d7f8f3fb2ce0.png" style="box-sizing:border-box; display:inline-block; height:378px; line-height:0px; max-width:1120.32px; vertical-align:middle; width:603px" /></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Tue, 02/06/2018 - 10:28</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Tue, 06 Feb 2018 15:28:28 +0000 steve 2122 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Ice Dams http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2121 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Ice Dams</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p style="margin:20px 0px 10px"><img alt="ice" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6bf7046e-4edd-4697-be40-0ecbf049e0db" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/ice%20dam.jpg" /></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">An ice dam is a ridge of ice that forms at the edge of a roof and prevents melting snow from draining. As water backs up behind the dam, it can leak through the roof and cause damage to walls, ceilings, insulation and other areas.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">How do ice dams form? </span></span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Ice dams are formed by an interaction between snow cover, outside temperatures, and heat lost through the roof. Specifically, there must be snow on the roof, warm portions of the upper roof (warmer than 32° F), and cold portions of the lower roof (at freezing or below). Melted snow from the warmer areas will refreeze when it flows down to the colder portions, forming an ice dam.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Although the primary contributor to snow melting is heat loss from the building's interior, solar radiation can also provide sufficient heat to melt snow on a roof. For example, in southern Canada, enough sunlight can be transmitted through 6 inches (150 mm) of snow cover on a clear and sunny day to cause melting at the roof's surface even when the outside temperature is 14° F (-10° C), with an attic temperature of 23° F (-5° C). </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Gutters do not cause ice dams to form, contrary to popular belief. Gutters do, however, help concentrate ice from the dam in a vulnerable area, where parts of the house can peel away under the weight of the ice and come crashing to the ground. </span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Problems Associated with Ice Dams </span></span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Ice dams are problematic because they force water to leak from the roof into the building envelope. This may lead to:</span></span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">rotted roof decking, exterior and interior walls, and framing; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">respiratory illnesses (allergies, asthma, etc.) caused by mold growth; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">reduced effectiveness of insulation. Wet insulation doesn’t work well, and chronically wet insulation will not decompress even when it dries. Without working insulation, even more heat will escape to the roof where more snow will melt, causing more ice dams which, in turn, will lead to leaks; and </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">peeling paint. Water from the leak will infiltrate wall cavities and cause paint to peel and blister. This may happen long after the ice dam has melted and thus not appear directly related to the ice dam. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Prevention</span></span></span></b></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Keep the entire roof cold. This can be accomplished by implementing the following measures:</span></span><br />   <ul type="circle"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Install a metal roof. Ice formations may occur on metal roofs, but the design of the roof will not allow the melting water to penetrate the roof's surface. Also,</span></span><img align="right" alt="Notice how the ice is heaviest beneath the chimney, where snow can be melted easily " src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.jpg" style="width:300px; height:300px" /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif"> snow and ice are more likely to slide off of a smooth, metal surface than asphalt shingles. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Seal all air leaks in the attic floor, such as those surrounding wire and plumbing penetrations, attic hatches, and ceiling light fixtures leading to the attic from the living space below. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Increase the thickness of insulation on the attic floor, ductwork, and chimneys that pass through the attic.</span></span></li> </ul></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Move or elevate exhaust systems that terminate just above the roof, where they are likely to melt snow. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">A minimum of 3" air space is recommended between the top of insulation and roof sheathing in sloped ceilings.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Remove snow from the roof. This can be accomplished safely using a roof rake from the ground. Be careful not to harm roofing materials or to dislodge dangerous icicles. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Create channels in the ice by hosing it with warm water. Because this process intentionally adds water to the roof, this should be done only in emergencies where a great deal of water is already flowing through the roof, and when temperatures are warm enough that the hose water can drain before it freezes.</span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px 0px 10px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">Prevention and Removal Methods to Avoid</span></span></span></b></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">electric heat cables. These rarely work, they require effort to install, they use electricity, and they can make shingles brittle. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#333333; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">manual removal of the ice dam using shovels, hammers, ice picks, rakes, or whatever destructive items can be found in the shed. The roof can be easily damaged by these efforts, as can the homeowner, when they slip off of the icy roof. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="color:#333333"><span style="font-family:&quot;&amp;quot&quot;,serif">In summary, ice dams are caused by inadequate attic insulation, but homeowners can take certain preventative measures to ensure that they are rare.</span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"> </p> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Wed, 01/24/2018 - 19:25</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Thu, 25 Jan 2018 00:25:05 +0000 steve 2121 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Barn Inspection http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2120 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Barn Inspection</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:24pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Barn Inspection</span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A barn is an agricultural building, typically located on a ranch or farm (or former ranch or farm), and used for a variety of purposes, including:</span></span><img align="right" alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images10-2/barn-2.jpg" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images10-2/barn-2.jpg" style="width:470px; height:220px" /></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">the storage of farming vehicles, equipment and supplies; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">housing livestock;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">storing hay and other livestock food supplies; and </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">as a covered work area. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Inspectors who work in rural areas may be asked to inspect a barn, but, before they do, they should consider the following two questions:</span></span></span></p> <ol start="1" type="1"><li style="margin:0px 0px 16px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Is the barn in a northern climate where it snows?<br /><br /> In snowy climates, long, unsupported spans and a lack of interior structural support can make barn roofs vulnerable to collapse. Melted snow can also cause ice dams and structural issues related to moisture intrusion, as well as mold growth.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In a property sale, are the buyers going to use the barn for the same purpose as the sellers or current occupants?<br /><br /> It's not uncommon for clients to purchase a property for its pastoral and rustic setting because it includes a barn but then not use the structure for its original purpose of housing animals. The buyer may be unaware that the barn was protected from freeze-thaw cycles by the body heat provided by the animals that the barn may have formerly housed, and the absence of animals and the natural warming they provided can lead to foundation and structural problems brought on by cold weather. If a barn is to be converted from a structure that houses livestock to living space for the family, homeowners can expect to make certain modifications beyond those meant merely for aesthetics and convenience. </span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">PPE</span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">While inspecting barns, inspectors should wear the appropriate personal protection equipment (PPE), including boots, gloves and respirators, especially if the structures are older or poorly ventilated. Some inspectors are surprised by how dirty barn air can be, reporting that one can almost taste ammonia or dust in the air. These may be the result of lingering animal waste, a failure to properly clean and maintain the interior of the structure, and/or a failure to make repairs to the structure itself. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Hazards to Look For </span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In and around the barn, inspectors can look for the following issues: </span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">kick damage from horses or livestock;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">manure piles deposited too close to the exterior of the barn;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">excessive dust. Primarily originating from hay, dust can irritate the eyes and respiratory systems of both humans and livestock;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">exposed nails, sharp edges and splinters;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">non-GFCI protected lights and electrical receptacles;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">extension cords. An older barn may not have an updated electrical system, including a lack of receptacles or outlets. Extension cords may overload the system and can also pose a tripping hazard; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">exposed electrical wires that may be reached by inquisitive animals or children;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">a lack of ventilation or shade in the livestock pens, which can cause animals to overheat; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">insufficient room at the feed rack for animals to eat; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">farm implements, such as ladders and hand tools, and farm machinery stored too near animals or in the path of people; and</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">fire hazards that are particular to outbuildings and farm structures. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Barns contain both natural and man-made flammables. For this reason, barn fires can be devastating and get out of control in a few seconds, especially if the property is located far away from first-responders. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Some of these fire hazards include:</span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><img align="right" alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images10-2/hay-barn.jpg" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images10-2/hay-barn.jpg" style="width:267px; height:188px" /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">excessive cobwebs on ceilings and walls, especially near light or heat sources;</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">hay stored near sources of light or heat; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">plastic and chemical items that can potentially lead to a fire, if not stored properly. Such items include plastic water buckets, nylon hay bags, nylon saddlebags, plastic stall signs, and chemical flammables, such as weed killers and insecticides; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">no lightning rod. Barns are often built in fields away from trees and other structures, making them prone to lightning strikes and subsequent fires; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">no fire extinguishers; and</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 16px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">an unmaintained or unmowed field around the barn. </span></span></li> </ul></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Recommendations for Owners</span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Inspectors can recommend that owners exercise the following precautions to ensure a safe barn area for both people and animals:</span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Loose tools and implements can cause injury, so they should be secured or stored out of the way of pens and footpaths.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Feed bags and buckets should be emptied and stowed to prevent injury and to avoid creating an easily accessible food source for rodents and other unwelcome pests, which are natural inhabitants on farms anyway. The same goes for water and food bowls for cats and dogs on the farm.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Water hoses should be drained, coiled and hung off of the floor. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Exposed splinters and nails should be removed or hammered in, and sharp edges should be sanded smooth, with broken boards replaced.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Electrical wires should run through conduits and not be in plain sight.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Gasoline, oil and other chemicals should be stored in appropriate sealed containers and out of the feed and animal areas to prevent accidental poisoning or contamination.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ABC-type fire extinguishers, which can put out wood, fire and hazardous chemical fires, should be placed every 75 feet, according to the University of New Hampshire’s Cooperative Extension.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Hay is extremely flammable and should be stored in a separate building, if possible. Hay should be dried before storage, as wet hay produces heat and can spontaneously combust. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Light sources should be covered with a protective covering. Jelly-jar fixtures are a common installation in barns.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Doors should be self-latching to prevent the escape of barned animals and the entry of intruders.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Portable electric heat sources should be turned off and unplugged before leaving the barn, as well as away from any potential fuel.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Wood stoves should be properly ventilated, with their fuel kept in a safe container and at a safe distance so as to prevent accidental ignition.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Skylights and windows should be checked for moisture intrusion and signs of mold growth. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Whitewashing the interior brick or cement walls every year or so can decrease the incidence of moisture intrusion and mold growth. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Animal waste should be evacuated from the interior at least daily.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Conveyor belts used for feeding or for removing waste should be checked regularly to ensure that they are free of oil and dust buildup, which can lead to accidental fire as well as malfunction. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Dry, tall grass can act as kindling, so a moderate defensible space around outbuildings should be maintained.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">If firewood is used in the home, it should be stored a safe distance from any outbuildings to prevent pest infestation and fire hazards.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Jute mats should be placed at the barn's entrances to wipe off boots before entering the barn in order to keep its floors as dry and clean as possible to prevent slip hazards.</span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Barns should be mucked out and swept daily, and more often during times of increased activity, not only to keep floors free of slip hazards but also to keep unwanted pests and odors in check. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"> </p> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Thu, 01/11/2018 - 20:52</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Fri, 12 Jan 2018 01:52:41 +0000 steve 2120 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Inspecting a Deck, http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2119 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Inspecting a Deck,</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><span style="font-size:24pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Inspecting a Deck, Illustrated <img alt="deck" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="894c543c-6298-47bf-8fab-7c53eaacfc67" height="91" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/deck_0.jpg" width="127" /></span></span></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">More than 2 million decks are built and replaced each year in North America. InterNACHI estimates that of the 45 million existing decks, only 40% are completely safe. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><img alt="Deck inpection." id="Picture_x0020_2" o:allowoverlap="f" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image001.jpg" style="position:absolute; margin-left:228.55pt; margin-top:0; width:279.75pt; height:200.25pt; z-index:251659264" /><img alt="deck" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="6caf6489-4607-4089-b293-8d9ddbe7ba2a" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/deck.jpg" class="align-right" /></span></p> <ol start="2" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin:0px" value="357369225"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">decks appear to be simple to build, many people do not realize that decks are, in fact, structures that need to be designed to adequately resist certain stresses. Like any other house or building, a deck must be designed to support the weight of people, snow loads, and objects. A deck must be able to resist lateral and uplift loads that can act on the deck as a result of wind or seismic activity. Deck stairs must be safe and handrails graspable. And, finally, deck rails should be safe for children by having proper infill spacing. </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A deck failure is any failure of a deck that could lead to injury, including rail failure, or total deck collapse. There is no international system that tracks deck failures, and each is treated as an isolated event, rather than a systemic problem. Very few municipalities perform investigations into the cause of the failure, and the media are generally more concerned with injuries rather than on the causes of collapses. Rail failure occurs much more frequently than total deck collapses; however, because rail failures are less dramatic than total collapses and normally don't result in death, injuries from rail failures are rarely reported. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Here are some interesting facts about deck failure: </span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">More decks collapse in the summer than during the rest of the year combined. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Almost every deck collapse occurred while the decks were occupied or under a heavy snow load. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is no correlation between deck failure and whether the deck was built with or without a building permit. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is no correlation between deck failure and whether the deck was built by a homeowner or a professional contractor. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There is a slight correlation between deck failure and the age of the deck. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">About 90% of deck collapses occurred as a result of the separation of the house and the deck ledger board, allowing the deck to swing away from the house. It is very rare for deck floor joists to break mid-span. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Many more injuries are the result of rail failure, rather than complete deck collapse. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Deck stairs are notorious for lacking graspable handrails. </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Many do-it-yourself homeowners, and even contractors, don't believe that rail infill spacing codes apply to decks. </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This document does not address specific building codes, balconies, lumber species, grade marks, decks made of plastics or composites, mold, or wood-destroying insects. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">This document focuses on single-level residential and commercial wood decks. Recommendations found within this document exceed the requirements of both InterNACHI's <i>Residential Standards of Practice</i> and the <i>International Standards of Practice for Inspecting Commercial Properties. </i></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A proper deck inspection relies heavily on the professional judgments of the inspector. This document will help improve the accuracy of those judgments.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Required Deck Inspection Tools:</span></span></i> </span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">flashlight; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">measuring tape; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">ladder; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">level; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">plumb bob; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">probing tool; and </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">hammer.</span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Optional Inspection Tools:</span></span></i> </span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">moisture meter; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">magnet; and </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">calculator.</span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Deck Loads: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A deck inspection should progress in much the same order as deck construction. Inspectors should start at the bottom. If a deck is deemed unsafe from underneath, the inspector should not walk out onto the deck to inspect decking, handrails, etc. The inspector should stop and report the safety issues. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-load-distribution-even.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_1" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-load-distribution-even.jpg" style="width:449.25pt; height:136.5pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts an evenly distributed deck load. Building codes require decks to be designed to carry a uniformly distributed load over the entire deck. If evenly distributed, half of the load is carried by the deck-to-house connection, and the other half is carried by the posts.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-load-distribution-typical.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_2" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-load-distribution-typical.jpg" style="width:449.25pt; height:162.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a typical deck load distribution. People tend to gather near the railings of a deck, and so more load is likely carried by the posts. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Hot tubs filled with water and people are heavy and can weigh a couple of tons. Most decks are designed for loads of 40 to 60 pounds per square foot. Hot tubs require framing that can support over 100 pounds per square foot. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Footings and Posts: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Required footing depths vary based on local building codes. The depth is normally below the frost line, or 12 inches (where frost lines are not applicable).</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/seven-foot-rule.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_3" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/seven-foot-rule.jpg" style="width:301.5pt; height:252pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The above image depicts the <i>7-Foot Rule.</i> On steep properties, the slope of the ground around the footing could affect the footing's stability. The <i>7-Foot Rule </i>states that there should be a least 7 feet between the bottom of a footing and daylight. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Posts in contact with soil should be pressure-treated and oriented so the cut end is above grade.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/freestanding-deck-disturbed-soil-3d.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_4" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/freestanding-deck-disturbed-soil-3d.jpg" style="width:315.75pt; height:321pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a free-standing deck (not attached to the home or building). A footing near a home must be on undisturbed soil. Some codes consider soil to be "undisturbed" if it hasn't been disturbed in more than five years. It may be difficult to find undisturbed soil near the foundation of a new home.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Unattached post." id="Picture_x0020_5" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image006.jpg" style="width:259.5pt; height:237.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a post base that is not attached to its footing. Posts should be connected to their footings so that the posts don't lift or slip off. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Pre-cast concrete pier." id="Picture_x0020_6" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image007.jpg" style="width:252pt; height:192pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a pre-cast concrete pier. Posts can lift out of pre-cast concrete piers, and piers can slide. Posts should be connected to their footings so that the posts don't lift or slip off. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/post-base-connection.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_7" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/post-base-connection.jpg" style="width:184.5pt; height:301.5pt" /></span></span></span></p> <ol start="20" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin:0px" value="13031"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">image above depicts a proper post-to-footing connection. Posts should be connected to their footings so that the posts don't lift or slip off their footings. </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/adjustable-post-base.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_8" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/adjustable-post-base.jpg" style="width:296.25pt; height:273.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <ol start="20" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin:0px" value="13031"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">image above depicts an adjustable post-to-footing connection. Posts should be connected to their footings so that the posts don't lift or slip off their footings. </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/lawn-sprinkler-contributing-to-post-decay.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_9" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/lawn-sprinkler-contributing-to-post-decay.jpg" style="width:255pt; height:312pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The above image depicts a lawn sprinkler keeping a deck post wet. Lawn sprinkler systems that regularly keep the deck wet contribute to decay. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/downspout-causing-post-decay.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_10" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/downspout-causing-post-decay.jpg" style="width:246.75pt; height:342pt" /></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a downspout contributing to post decay. Downspouts should not discharge near deck posts. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/footer-hole-causing-puddle.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_11" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/footer-hole-causing-puddle.jpg" style="width:249pt; height:222.75pt" /></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts the indentation left over from the footing hole, causing a puddle. Puddles contribute to post decay.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Wood can decay and degrade over time with exposure to the elements. Decay is a problem that worsens with time. Members within the deck frame that have decayed may no longer be able to perform the function for which they were installed. Paint can hide decay from an inspector and so should be noted in the report. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/pick-test.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_12" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/pick-test.jpg" style="width:276pt; height:162.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a "pick test." The pick test uses an ice pick, awl or screwdriver to penetrate the wood surface. After penetrating the wood, the tool is leveraged to pry up a splinter, parallel to the grain, away from the surface. The appearance and sound of the action is used to detect decay. The inspector should first try the pick test in an area where the wood is known to be sound to deterimine a "control" for the rest of the inspection. Decayed wood will break directly over the tool with very few splinters, and less or almost no audible noise compared to sound wood. The pick test cannot detect decay far from the surface of the wood. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/deep-pick-test-on-post.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_13" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/deep-pick-test-on-post.jpg" style="width:275.25pt; height:229.5pt" /></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a pick test on a deck post. Although deck inspections are visual-only inspections, inspectors may want to dig down around posts and perform pick tests just below grade level to look for decay.<br /><b><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/tall-deck-posts.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_14" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/tall-deck-posts.jpg" style="width:255.75pt; height:303pt" /></span> </b></span></span></span></p> <ol start="20" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin:0px" value="13031"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">image above depicts a high deck being supported with 4"x 4" posts. Tall 4"x 4" posts twist under load and 4"x 4" posts, even when treated, decay below grade too quickly. In all but the lowest of decks, deck posts should be at least 6"x 6", and be no higher than 12 feet; 14 feet is acceptable if cross-bracing is used. </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Often, the bottoms of the stringer boards for deck stairs have been found to rest on soil, concrete block or rock, as opposed to resting on posts installed below the frost line. Posts set on soil are subject to rot due to moisture. Posts that are set in unsound footings may cause movement and make the deck above unstable.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Girders and Beams: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/distance-to-soil.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_15" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/distance-to-soil.jpg" style="width:363.75pt; height:230.25pt" /></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts the minimum distance of untreated support members from grade. Untreated joists should be at least 18 inches away from the ground. Girders should be 12 inches away from the ground. However, in many situations, exceptions are made where the elevation of the home does not provide for these minimum distances and the climate is very dry. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><br /><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="Girder-post connection." id="Picture_x0020_16" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image017.jpg" style="width:222.75pt; height:252pt" /></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a girder improperly relying on the sheer strength of lag bolts. Girders should bear directly on posts. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Notched post to beam attachment." id="Picture_x0020_17" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image018.jpg" style="width:197.25pt; height:315.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a girder properly resting on a notched post. Girders should bear directly on posts. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="Proper girder to post connection." id="Picture_x0020_18" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image019.jpg" style="width:238.5pt; height:174pt" /></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a girder properly resting on a post. Girders should bear directly on posts. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Girders supporting joist should not be supported by deck ledgers or band joists.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/butt-joint-of-deck-beam-span.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_19" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/butt-joint-of-deck-beam-span.jpg" style="width:327.75pt; height:133.5pt" /></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a butt joint improperly located within a girder span. Butt joints in a girder span are generally not permitted unless specially engineered. Butt joints typically must be located above posts. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/maximum-notch-sizes.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_20" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/maximum-notch-sizes.jpg" style="width:335.25pt; height:176.25pt" /></span></span><br /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts notches in a supporting beam. Notches must be less than one-quarter the depth of the member. On the tension and compression faces, the notch depth must be less than one-sixth of the member's depth, and the notch length must be less than one-third of the member's depth. Notches are not permitted in the middle third of spans, or on the tension face of members that are greater than 3</span></span><span style="margin:0px"><font face="Calibri">½</font></span><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> inches thick.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Inspecting for beam sag." id="Picture_x0020_21" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image022.jpg" style="width:327pt; height:131.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a level being used to check for beam sag. Even with a carpenter's level, it can be difficult to see beam sag from the front. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/inspecting-for-beam-sag-eye.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_22" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/inspecting-for-beam-sag-eye.jpg" style="width:335.25pt; height:216.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts beam sag being eyed-up. Often it is easier to detect beam sag by eye than with a level by looking along the bottom edge of the beam. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ledger Connection:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The most common cause of deck collapse is when a ledgers pulls away from the band joists of homes and buildings. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The two most common ways to correctly attach a ledger to a structure are with lag screws or through-bolts. The installation of through-bolts requires access to the back-side of the rim joist which, in some cases, is not possible without significant removal of drywall within the structure.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Most building codes state that, where positive connections to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self-supporting (free-standing).</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Determining the exact required spacing for the ledger fasteners is based on many factors, including:</span></span></span></p> <ul type="disc"><li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">joist length; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">type of fastener; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">diameter of fastener; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">sheathing thickness; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">use of stacked washers; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">type of wood species; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">moisture content; </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">band joist integrity; and </span></span></li> <li style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px; color:#000000; line-height:normal; font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif; font-size:12pt; font-style:normal; font-weight:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">deck loads... </span></span></li> </ul><p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">...and so is beyond the scope of a visual inspection. However, the spacing of ledger fasteners is primarily determined by the length of the joists. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">InterNACHI's ledger fastener spacing formula provides inspectors with a rule-of-thumb:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 6.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><b><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">On-center spacing of ledger fasteners in inches = 100 </span></span></i></b><b><span style="font-size:24pt; margin:0px">÷</span></b><b><i><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"> joist length in feet.</span></span></i></b></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">A deck with substantially fewer ledger fasteners than that recommended by InterNACHI's formula may be unsafe.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/ledger-fastner-placement.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_23" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/ledger-fastner-placement.jpg" style="width:449.25pt; height:207.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above shows the minimum distance of fasteners to the edges and ends of a ledger board. Lag screws or bolts should be staggered vertically, placed at least 2 inches from the bottom or top, and 5 inches from the ends of the ledger board. Some codes permit the lag screws or bolts to be as close as 2 inches from the ends of the ledger board; however, avoiding the very ends of the ledger boards minimizes splitting from load stress.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Through-bolts should be a minimum of </span></span><span style="margin:0px"><font face="Calibri">½-</font></span><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">inch in diameter, and have washers at the bolt head and nut. Lag screws should also be a minimum of </span></span><span style="margin:0px"><font face="Calibri">½-</font></span><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">inch in diameter and have washers. Expansion and adhesive anchors should also have washers.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Deck ledgers should be of at least 2'x 8' pressure-treated wood. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ledger Board and Band Joist Contact:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/ledger-board-with-washer-spacers.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_24" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/ledger-board-with-washer-spacers.jpg" style="width:174pt; height:263.25pt" /></span> </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts washers being used as spacers between the ledger board and band joist, which is incorrect.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">In some cases, the ledger board and band joist are intentionally kept separated by a stack of washers on the lag screw or bolts to allow water to run between the two boards. In other cases, there is insulation between the two boards. Even worse is when the siding or exterior finish system was not removed prior to the installation of the ledger board. Situations like this, where the ledger board and band joist are not in direct contact, significantly reduce the strength of the ledger connection to the structure and are not recommended by InterNACHI, unless the two members are sandwiching structural sheathing. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/ledger-board-in-contact-with-band.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_25" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/ledger-board-in-contact-with-band.jpg" style="width:171.75pt; height:269.25pt" /></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a ledger board and band joist sandwiching the structural sheathing (correct).</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">All through-bolts should have washers at the bolt head and nut. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/hold-down-tension-device.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_26" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/hold-down-tension-device.jpg" style="width:449.25pt; height:279.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a hold-down tension device. The <i>2007 IRC Supplement</i> requires hold-down tension devices at no less than two locations per deck. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Codes in some areas outright forbid attaching a ledger board to an open-web floor truss.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/ledger-board-to-concrete.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_27" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/ledger-board-to-concrete.jpg" style="width:363.75pt; height:246pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a ledger board attached to a concrete wall. Caulking rather than flashing is used.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/ledger-board-to-solid-masonry-3d.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_28" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/ledger-board-to-solid-masonry-3d.jpg" style="width:357.75pt; height:251.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <ol start="20" style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin:0px" value="13031"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">image above depicts a ledger board attached to hollow masonry. When the ledger is attached to a hollow masonry wall, the cell should be grouted. </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/ledger-board-attached-brick-veneer.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_29" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/ledger-board-attached-brick-veneer.jpg" style="width:279.75pt; height:228.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a ledger board improperly supported brick veneer. Ledger boards should not be supported by stone or brick veneer.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Ledger boards should not be attached directly (surface-mounted) to stucco or EIFS, either. Stucco and EIFS have to be cut back so that ledger boards can be attached directly to band joists; however, cut-back stucco and EIFS are difficult to flash and weather-proof.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Ledger board flashing." id="Picture_x0020_30" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image031.jpg" style="width:427.5pt; height:258pt" /></span></span><br /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts both over and under ledger board flashing. The ledger board should always be flashed even when the home or building has a protective roof overhang. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Aluminum flashing is commonly available but should not be used. Contact with pressure-treated wood or galvinized fasteners can lead to rapid corrosion of aluminum.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/deck-attached-to-overhang.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_31" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/deck-attached-to-overhang.jpg" style="width:231pt; height:318.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck ledger attached to an overhang. Decks should not be attached to overhangs. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/framing-around-bay-window.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_32" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/framing-around-bay-window.jpg" style="width:366.75pt; height:197.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts proper framing around chimneys or bay windows that are up to 6 feet wide. Framing around chimneys or bay windows that are more than 6 feet wide requires additional posts.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Maximum cantilever." id="Picture_x0020_33" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image034.jpg" style="width:300.75pt; height:160.5pt" /></span></span><br /><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a cantilevered deck. Joists should be cantilevered no more than one-quarter of the joist length and three times the joist width (nominal depth). Both conditions must be true.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Maximum cantilever." id="Picture_x0020_34" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image035.jpg" style="width:388.5pt; height:279pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a joist cantilever in the front of the deck and girder cantilevers on both sides of deck posts. Joists should be cantilevered no more than one-quarter the joist length and three times the joist width (nominal depth). Girders can be cantilevered over their posts no more than on-quarter the girder length. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">There are three ways a joist can be attached to a ledger: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/joist-on-ledger-strip.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_35" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/joist-on-ledger-strip.jpg" style="width:279pt; height:164.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The first is by resting the joist on a ledger strip. The image above depicts a joist properly resting on a 2"x 2" ledger strip. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Joist notched over ledger strip." id="Picture_x0020_36" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image037.jpg" style="width:278.25pt; height:162pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The second is by notching over a ledger strip. The image above depicts a notched joist properly resting a 2"x 2" ledger strip. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/joists-resting-on-joist-hangers.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_37" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/joists-resting-on-joist-hangers.jpg" style="width:329.25pt; height:131.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The third is by hanging the joists with joist hangers. The image above depicts joists properly attached to a ledger by way of metal joist hangers. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/joist-cut-too-short.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_38" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/joist-cut-too-short.jpg" style="width:282.75pt; height:207.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a joist cut too short. Joists may rest on 2"x 2" ledgers like the one above (or in joist hangers), but joists must be cut long enough to reach the ledger or band joist that is supporting them. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/joist-hangers-too-low.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_39" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/joist-hangers-too-low.jpg" style="width:282.75pt; height:191.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts joists that are not fully resting in their joist hangers. Joists should be fully resting in their joist hangers. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Bracing: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/cross-braces.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_40" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/cross-braces.jpg" style="width:340.5pt; height:321.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck with post-to-joist diagonal bracing. Decks greater than 6 feet above grade should have diagonal bracing from posts to girder, and from posts to joists. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/cross-bracing.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_41" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/cross-bracing.jpg" style="width:357.75pt; height:4in" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck with post-to-girder diagonal bracing. Decks greater than 6 feet above grade should have diagonal bracing from posts to girder, and from posts to joists.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Free-standing decks (not supported by the home or building) should have diagonal bracing on all sides.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/underside-diagonal-bracing.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_42" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/underside-diagonal-bracing.jpg" style="width:278.25pt; height:222.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts underside diagonal bracing of a deck. Decks greater than 6 feet above grade that do not have diagonal decking should have diagonal bracing across the bottoms of the joists to keep the deck square. A deck that is not held square could permit the outer posts to lean to the right or left, parallel to the ledger board, and thus twist the ledger away from the home or building. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Cracks: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">As wood ages, it is common for cracks to develop. Large cracks (longer than the depth of the member) or excessive cracking overall can weaken deck framing. Toe-nailed connections are always at risk for splitting. Splitting of lumber near connections should be noted by the inspector.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Connectors and Fasteners:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The inspector should note missing connectors or fasteners. All lag screws and bolts should have washers.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/hammer-test.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_43" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/hammer-test.jpg" style="width:244.5pt; height:192pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a "hammer test." Depending on how the deck was built, vital connections may have degraded over time due to various factors. Issues such as wobbly railings, loose stairs, and ledgers that appear to be pulling away from the adjacent structure are all causes for concern. The tightness of fasteners should be checked. If it is not possible to reach both sides of a bolt, it may be struck with a hammer. The ring will sound hollow with vibration if the fastener is loose. The ring will sound solid if the connection is tight. The hammer test is subjective, so the inspector should hammer-test bolts that can be confirmed as tight or loose, and compare the sounds of the rings to develop a control. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Corrosion of Connectors and Fasteners:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha"><li style="margin:0px" value="298"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">screws, bolts and nails should be hot-dipped galvanized, stainless steel, silicon bronze, copper, zinc-coated or corrosion-resistant. Metal connectors and fasteners can corrode over time, especially if a product with insufficient corrosion-resistance was originally installed. Corrosion of a fastener affects both the fastener and the wood. As the fastener corrodes, it causes the wood around it to deteriorate. As the fastener becomes smaller, the void around it becomes larger. Inspectors normally do not remove fasteners to check their quality or size, but if the inspector removes a fastener, s/he should make sure that removal doesn't result in a safety issue. Fasteners removed should be from areas that have the greatest exposure to weather. Some inspectors carry new fasteners to replace ones they remove at the inspection. </span></span></span></li> </ol><p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Posts and Rails: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Missing posts." id="Picture_x0020_44" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image045.jpg" style="width:261pt; height:206.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above shows a guardrail supported solely by balusters. Guardrails should be supported by posts every 6 feet.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/notched-guardrail-post-connection.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_45" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/notched-guardrail-post-connection.jpg" style="width:268.5pt; height:234pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a notched-deck guardrail post attachment. This common notched-type of attachment is permitted by most codes, but could become unsafe, especially as the deck ages. Because of leverage, a 200-pound force pushing the deck's guardrail outward causes a 1,700-pound force at the upper bolt attaching the post. It is difficult to attach deck guardrail posts in a manner that is strong enough without using deck guardrail post brackets.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Notched guardrail post." id="Picture_x0020_46" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image047.jpg" style="width:255pt; height:294.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a notched-deck guardrail post attachment. This notched-around-decking type of attachment is permitted by most codes, but could become unsafe, especially as the deck ages. Because of leverage, a 200-pound force pushing the deck's guardrail outward causes a 1,700-pound force at the upper bolt attaching the post. It is difficult to attach deck guardrail posts in a manner that is strong enough without using deck guardrail post brackets. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/deck-post-connectors.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_47" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/deck-post-connectors.jpg" style="width:281.25pt; height:216.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck guardrail post properly attached with brackets. Because of leverage, a 200-pound force pushing the deck's guardrail outward causes a 1,700-pound force at the upper bolt attaching the post. It is difficult to attach deck guardrail posts in a manner that is strong enough without using deck guardrail post brackets.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Level cut post and balusters." id="Picture_x0020_48" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image049.jpg" style="width:159.75pt; height:206.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a post and balusters cut level and not shedding water. The end-grain of vertical posts and balusters should not be cut level.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Angle cut post and balusters." id="Picture_x0020_49" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image050.jpg" style="width:177pt; height:213.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a post and balusters properly cut at angles to shed water. The end-grain of vertical posts and balusters should be cut at an angle.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Missing Guardrails:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Decks that are greater than 12 inches above adjacent areas should have guardrails around the edges. Some codes require guardrails only around the edges of decks 30 inches or higher.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Improper Guardrail Height:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Most residential codes require the top of the guardrail to be at least 36 inches from the deck surface. Most commercial code height is 42 inches. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/child-unsafe-infill.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_50" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/child-unsafe-infill.jpg" style="width:250.5pt; height:186pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts child-unsafe guardrail infill. Infill should not permit a 4-inch sphere to pass through.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/horizontal-balustrades.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_51" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/horizontal-balustrades.jpg" style="width:252pt; height:165.75pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts horizontal balustrades. Ladder-type guardrail infill on high decks is prohibited by some local codes because they are easy for children to climb over. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Decking: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Decking overhang &lt;= 6 inches." id="Picture_x0020_52" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image053.jpg" style="width:374.25pt; height:209.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts deck framing near a chimney or bay window. The ends of decking boards near the chimney or bay window can extend unsupported up to 6 inches.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Improperly spaced decking." id="Picture_x0020_53" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image054.jpg" style="width:248.25pt; height:161.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The above image depicts decking that is laid too tight. Decking should have 1/8-inch gaps between boards so that puddles don't form.<br /><span style="margin:0px"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/properly-spaced-decking.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_54" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/properly-spaced-decking.jpg" style="width:252pt; height:196.5pt" /></span></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The above image depicts decking that is properly spaced. Decking should have 1/8-inch gaps between boards so that puddles don't form. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/decking-not-staggered.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_55" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/decking-not-staggered.jpg" style="width:289.5pt; height:207.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts decking that isn't staggered properly. Decking should be staggered so that butt joints don't land on the same joist side by side. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/decking-length.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_56" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-inspections/decking-length.jpg" style="width:287.25pt; height:219pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts decking lengths. Some are too short. Each segment of decking should bear on a minimum of four joists. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Decking should be attached to the floor joists and rim joist, especially in high-wind areas.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Decking Nail Pull-Out:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Inspectors should look for splitting in decking and nail pull-out. Aside from the structural issue, nails that have pulled out or screws that are not driven into the decking fully can cause injury to bare feet. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stairs: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Deck stair stringer." id="Picture_x0020_57" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image058.jpg" style="width:243pt; height:159.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck stair stringer. Stair stringers shall be made of 2"x 12" lumber at a minimum, and no less than 5 inches wide at any point.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Stair stinger span." id="Picture_x0020_58" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image059.jpg" style="width:231pt; height:234.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts deck stair stringers. Stringers should be no more than 36 inches apart.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Stair ledger strips." id="Picture_x0020_59" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image060.jpg" style="width:141.75pt; height:256.5pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts ledger strips properly located under stair treads. Where solid stringers are used, stair treads should be supported with ledger strips (as depicted), mortised, or supported with metal brackets.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Open stair risers." id="Picture_x0020_60" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image061.jpg" style="width:249.75pt; height:209.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a set of stairs with open risers. Most deck stairs have open risers and are not safe for children. Risers may be open but should not allow the passage of a 4-inch diameter sphere.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Uniform riser height." id="Picture_x0020_61" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image062.jpg" style="width:252.75pt; height:182.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts stair riser height. To minimize tripping, the maximum variation amongst riser heights (difference between the tallest and shortest risers) should be no more than 3/8-inch. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The bottom step of a stairway leading up to a deck is typically at a different height than the rest of the steps. This can present a trip hazard.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Steps with open risers can present a tripping hazard if a user catches his foot by stepping too far into the tread. To mitigate this hazard, the risers can be closed or the treads can be made deeper.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Deck Lighting:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Decks rarely have light sources that cover the entire stairways. Any unlit stairway is a safety issue. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stair Handrails:</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Stairs with four or more risers should have a handrail on at least one side. According to the <i>International Standards of Practice for Inspecting Commercial Properties,</i> ramps longer than 6 feet should have handrails on both sides. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Handrail height." id="Picture_x0020_62" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image063.jpg" style="width:178.5pt; height:262.5pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts proper stair handrail height. Handrail height should be between 34 and 38 inches measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/handrail-not-graspable.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_63" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/handrail-not-graspable.jpg" style="width:245.25pt; height:205.5pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a stair handrail that is not graspable. Many deck handrails improperly consist of 2"x 6" lumber or decking. Handrails should be graspable, continuous and smooth.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://internachi-reportsinc.netdna-ssl.com/images2012/handrail-return.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_64" src="https://internachi-reportsinc.netdna-ssl.com/images2012/handrail-return.jpg" style="width:465pt; height:243.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The images above show that handrail ends should be returned or terminate in newel posts.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The next three images depict graspable handrails: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Graspable handrail." id="Picture_x0020_65" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image066.jpg" style="width:227.25pt; height:233.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/handrail-graspable.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_66" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/handrail-graspable.jpg" style="width:243.75pt; height:177.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px 0px 10.66px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/handrail-grip.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_67" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images08/handrail-grip.jpg" style="width:170.25pt; height:197.25pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The three images directly above depict graspable handrails. Many deck handrails improperly consist of 2"x 6" lumber or decking. Handrails should be graspable, continuous and smooth.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Minimum distance between handrail posts." id="Picture_x0020_68" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image069.jpg" style="width:226.5pt; height:273pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts the minimum distance between stair handrail posts. Stair handrails should have posts at least every 5 feet. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Stair child safety." id="Picture_x0020_69" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image070.jpg" style="width:177.75pt; height:319.5pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts permitted spacing at stairs. Larger spacing presents a child-safety issue.</span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Electrical Receptacle: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-receptacle.jpg" id="Picture_x0020_70" src="https://d12m281ylf13f0.cloudfront.net/images09/deck-receptacle.jpg" style="width:267pt; height:264.75pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck with an electrical receptacle, but the receptacle does not have a weatherproof cover. As of 2008, the National Electric Code requires at least one receptacle outlet on decks that are 20 square foot or larger. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Weatherproof receptacle cover." id="Picture_x0020_71" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image072.jpg" style="width:186pt; height:205.5pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a weatherproof receptacle cover. The deck receptacle should have a weatherproof cover. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"> </p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">Deck Location: </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Poor deck location." id="Picture_x0020_72" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image073.jpg" style="width:243pt; height:303pt" /></span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck located above a septic tank access. Decks should not be located where they might obstruct septic tank accesses, underground fuel storage tanks, well heads, or buried power lines. </span></span></span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif"><img alt="Deck obstructing emergency egress." id="Picture_x0020_73" src="file:///C:/Users/steve/AppData/Local/Temp/msohtmlclip1/01/clip_image074.jpg" style="width:274.5pt; height:320.25pt" /></span></span> </span></p> <p style="margin:0px"><span style="line-height:normal"><span style="font-size:12pt; margin:0px"><span style="font-family:&quot;Times New Roman&quot;,serif">The image above depicts a deck obstructing a basement bedroom's emergency egress window. Egress openings under decks and porches are acceptable, provided the escape path is at least 36 inches (914 mm) in height, and the path of egress is not obstructed by infill or lattice. </span></span></span></p> </div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Wed, 01/03/2018 - 13:24</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Wed, 03 Jan 2018 18:24:49 +0000 steve 2119 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Wood Burning Stoves http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2116 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Wood Burning Stoves</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p><strong><span>Wood-Burning Stoves</span></strong></p> <p><span> </span></p> <p><span> </span></p> <p><span>A wood-burning stove (also known as a wood stove) is a heating appliance made from iron or steel that is capable of burning wood fuel. Unlike standard fireplaces, wood stoves are typically contained entirely within the living space, rather than inset in the wall.</span><img alt="stove" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="96528d64-a76a-4439-bc46-543245f895b6" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/wood-burning-stove.jpg" /></p> <p><span>Wood stoves come in many different sizes, each suited for a different purpose:</span></p> <ul type="disc"><li><span>Small stoves are suitable in single rooms, seasonal cottages or small, energy efficient homes. These models can also be used for zone heating in large homes where supplemental heating is needed. </span></li> <li><span>Medium-size stoves are appropriate for heating small houses or mid-size homes that are intended to be energy-efficient and as inexpensive as possible to maintain. </span></li> <li><span>Large stoves are used in larger homes or older homes that leak air and are located in colder climate zones. </span></li> </ul><p><span>To ensure safe and efficient use of wood-burning stoves, inspectors can pass along the following tips to their clients:</span></p> <p><span>Never:</span></p> <ul type="disc"><li><span>burn coal. Coal burns significantly hotter than wood, posing a fire hazard; </span></li> <li><span>burn materials that will emit toxic chemicals, such as wood that has been pressure-treated or painted, colored paper, gift wrap, plastic, plywood, particleboard, or questionable wood from furniture; </span></li> <li><span>burn wet wood. Generally speaking, it takes six months for cut, stored wood to dry out and be ready for use in wood-burning stoves; </span></li> <li><span>burn combustible liquids, such as kerosene, gasoline, alcohol or lighter fluid; </span></li> <li><span>let small children play near a lit wood-burning stove. Unlike standard fireplaces, the sides of which are mostly inaccessible, all sides of wood stoves are exposed and capable of burning flesh or clothing; or </span></li> <li><span>let the fire burn while the fire screen or door is open.</span></li> </ul><p><span>Always:</span></p> <ul type="disc"><li><span>use a grate to hold the logs so that they remain secured in the stove and the air can circulate adequately to keep the fire burning hot; </span></li> <li><span>keep the damper open while the stove is lit; </span></li> <li><span>dispose of ashes outdoors in a water-filled, metal container; </span></li> <li><span>check smoke alarms to make sure they are working properly; and </span></li> <li><span>periodically remove the stovepipe between the stove and the chimney so that it can be inspected for creosote. Homeowners may want to hire a professional to perform this service.</span></li> </ul><p><strong><span>Efficiency and Air Pollutants</span></strong><img alt="Image removed." height="16" src="/core/misc/icons/e32700/error.svg" width="16" title="This image has been removed. For security reasons, only images from the local domain are allowed." class="filter-image-invalid" /></p> <p><span>While federal and state governments crack down on vehicle and industrial emissions, they do relatively little to limit the harmful air pollution emitted from wood stoves. The problem is so bad that, in many areas, such as Chico, Caifornia (pictured at right), the smoke from wood stoves is the largest single contributor to that city's air pollution.  Smoke from wood stoves can cause a variety of health ailments, from asthma to cancer. </span></p> <p><span>To mitigate these concerns, the EPA sets requirements for wood-stove emissions based on the design of the stove: 4.1 grams of smoke per hour (g/h) for catalytic stoves, and 7.5 g/h for non-catalytic stoves. Some state laws further restrict airborne particulates, and many new models emit as little as 1 g/h. These two approaches -- catalytic and non-catalytic combustion -- are described briefly as follows:</span></p> <ul type="disc"><li><span>In catalytic stoves, the smoky exhaust passes through a coated, ceramic honeycomb that ignites particulates and smoke gasses. Catalysts degrade over time and must eventually be replaced, but they can last up to six seasons if the stove is used properly. Inadequate maintenance and the use of inappropriate fuel result in an early expiration of the catalyst. These stoves are typically more expensive than non-catalytic models, and they require more maintenance, although these challenges pay off through heightened efficiency. </span></li> <li><span>Non-catalytic stoves lack a catalyst but have three characteristics that assist complete, clean combustion:  pre-heated combustion air introduced from above the fuel; firebox insulation; and a large baffle to create hotter, longer air flow in the firebox. The baffle will eventually need to be replaced as it deteriorates from combustion heat.</span></li> </ul><p><span>The following indicators hint that the fire in a wood-burning stove suffers from oxygen deprivation and incomplete combustion, which will increase the emission of particulates into the air: </span></p> <ul type="disc"><li><span>It emits dark, smelly smoke. An efficient stove will produce little smoke. </span></li> <li><span>There is a smoky odor in the house. </span></li> <li><span>There is soot on the furniture. </span></li> <li><span>The stove is burning at less than 300º F. A flue pipe-mounted thermometer should read between 300º F and 400º F. </span></li> <li><span>The flames are dull and steady, rather than bright and lively.</span></li> </ul><p><span>To ensure efficiency, practice the following techniques:</span></p> <ul type="disc"><li><span>Purchase a wood-burning stove listed by Underwriters Laboratories. Stoves tested by UL and other laboratories burn cleanly and efficiently. </span></li> <li><span>Burn only dry wood. Wood that has a moisture content (MC) of less than 20% burns hotter and cleaner than freshly cut wood, which may contain half of its weight in water. </span></li> <li><span>Burn hardwoods, such as oak, hickory and ash once the fire has started. Softwoods, such as pine, ignite quicker and are excellent fire starters.  </span></li> <li><span>Make sure the stove is properly sized for the space. Stoves that are too large for their area burn inefficiently. </span></li> <li><span>Burn smaller wood rather than larger pieces. Smaller pieces of wood have a large surface area, which allows them to burn hotter and cleaner.</span></li> </ul><p><span>In summary, wood-burning stoves, if properly designed and used appropriately for the space, are efficient, clean ways to heat a home. </span></p> <p><span> </span></p> <p><span> </span></p> <p> </p></div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Mon, 12/11/2017 - 23:58</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Tue, 12 Dec 2017 04:58:03 +0000 steve 2116 at http://veeshomeinspections.com Carbon Monoxide Poisoning http://veeshomeinspections.com/node/2115 <span class="field field-name-title field-formatter-string field-type-string field-label-hidden">Carbon Monoxide Poisoning</span> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field-node--body field-formatter-text-default field-name-body field-type-text-with-summary field-label-hidden has-single"><div class="field__items"><div class="field__item"><p><img alt="co detector" data-entity-type="file" data-entity-uuid="9151f4d8-bdcd-4deb-b727-531b009e9888" src="/sites/default/files/inline-images/Ionization.jpg" /><br />   Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas that forms from incomplete combustion of fuels, such as natural or liquefied petroleum gas, oil, wood or coal.  <br /> Facts and Figures<br /> • 480 U.S. residents died between 2001 and 2003 from non-fire-related carbonmonoxide poisoning.  • Most CO exposures occur during the winter months, especially in December (including 56 deaths, and 2,157 non-fatal exposures), and in January (including 69 deaths and 2,511 non-fatal exposures). The peak time of day for CO exposure is between 6 and 10 p.m.  • Many experts believe that CO poisoning statistics understate the problem. Because the symptoms of CO poisoning mimic a range of common health ailments, it is likely that a large number of mild to mid-level exposures are never identified, diagnosed, or accounted for in any way in carbon monoxide statistics.  • Out of all reported non-fire carbon-monoxide incidents, 89% or almost nine out of 10 of them take place in a home.<br /> Physiology of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning<br /> When CO is inhaled, it displaces the oxygen that would ordinarily bind with hemoglobin, a process the effectively suffocates the body. CO can poison slowly over a period of several hours, even in low concentrations. Sensitive organs, such as the brain, heart and lungs, suffer the most from a lack of oxygen. <br /> High concentrations of carbon monoxide can kill in less than five minutes. At low concentrations, it will require a longer period of time to affect the body. Exceeding the EPA concentration of 9 parts per million (ppm) for more than eight hours may have adverse health affects. The limit of CO exposure for healthy workers, as prescribed by the U.S. Occupational Health and Safety Administration, is 50 ppm.   Potential Sources of Carbon Monoxide<br />  <br /> Any fuel-burning appliances which are malfunctioning or improperly installed can be a source of CO, such as:<br /> • furnaces; <br /> • stoves and ovens;  • water heaters;  • dryers;  • room and space heaters;  • fireplaces and wood stoves;  • charcoal grills;  • automobiles;  • clogged chimneys or flues;  • space heaters;  • power tools that run on fuel;  • gas and charcoal grills;  • certain types of swimming pool heaters; and   • boat engines.<br />        <br /> PPM <br /> % CO  in air <br /> Health Effects in Healthy Adults <br /> Source/Comments <br /> 0  0% <br /> no effects; this is the normal level in a properly operating heating appliance <br />   <br /> 35  0.0035%  maximum allowable workplace exposure limit for an eight-hour work shift <br /> The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)<br /> 50  0.005% <br /> maximum allowable workplace exposure limit for an eight-hour work shift <br />               OSHA<br /> 100  0.01% <br /> slight headache, fatigue, shortness of breath,  errors in judgment <br />  125  0.0125%     workplace alarm must sound (OSHA)  200  0.02%  headache, fatigue,  nausea, dizziness <br />  <br /> 400  0.04% <br /> severe headache, fatigue, nausea, dizziness, confusion; can be lifethreatening after three hours of exposure <br /> evacuate area immediately <br /> 800  0.08% <br /> convulsions, loss of consciousness; death within three hours<br /> evacuate area immediately <br /> 12,000  1.2%  nearly instant death <br />  <br />     CO Detector Placement<br />  <br /> CO detectors can monitor exposure levels, but do not place them:<br /> • directly above or beside fuel-burning appliances, as appliances may emit a small amount of carbon monoxide upon start-up;  • within 15 feet of heating and cooking appliances, or in or near very humid areas, such as bathrooms;  • within 5 feet of kitchen stoves and ovens, or near areas locations where household chemicals and bleach are stored (store such chemicals away from bathrooms and kitchens, whenever possible);  • in garages, kitchens, furnace rooms, or in any extremely dusty, dirty, humid, or greasy areas;  • in direct sunlight, or in areas subjected to temperature extremes. These include unconditioned crawlspaces, unfinished attics, un-insulated or poorly insulated ceilings, and porches;  • in turbulent air near ceiling fans, heat vents, air conditioners, fresh-air returns, or open windows. Blowing air may prevent carbon monoxide from reaching the CO sensors.<br /> Do place CO detectors:<br /> • within 10 feet of each bedroom door and near all sleeping areas, where it can wake sleepers. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) recommend that every home have at least one carbon monoxide detector for each floor of the home, and within hearing range of each sleeping area;  • on every floor of your home, including the basement (source:  International Association of Fire Chiefs/IAFC);  • near or over any attached garage. Carbon monoxide detectors are affected by excessive humidity and by close proximity to gas stoves (source:  City of New York);  • near, but not directly above, combustion appliances, such as furnaces, water heaters, and fireplaces, and in the garage (source:  UL); and  • on the ceiling in the same room as permanently installed fuel-burning appliances, and centrally located on every habitable level, and in every HVAC zone of the building (source:  National Fire Protection Association 720). This rule applies to commercial buildings.<br /> In North America, some national, state and local municipalities require installation of CO detectors in new and existing homes, as well as commercial businesses, among them:  Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, Vermont and New York City, and the Canadian province of Ontario. Installers are encouraged to check with their local municipality to determine what specific requirements have been enacted in their jurisdiction.<br /> How can I prevent CO poisoning?<br /> • Purchase and install carbon monoxide detectors with labels showing that they meet the requirements of the new UL standard 2034 or Comprehensive Safety Analysis 6.19 safety standards.  • Make sure appliances are installed and operated according to the manufacturer's instructions and local building codes. Have the heating system professionally inspected by an InterNACHI inspector and serviced annually to ensure proper operation. The inspector should also check chimneys and flues for blockages, corrosion, partial and complete disconnections, and loose connections.  • Never service fuel-burning appliances without the proper knowledge, skill and tools. Always refer to the owner's manual when performing minor adjustments and when servicing fuel-burning equipment.  • Never operate a portable generator or any other gasoline engine-powered tool either in or near an enclosed space, such as a garage, house or other building. Even with open doors and windows, these spaces can trap CO and allow it to quickly build to lethal levels.  • Never use portable fuel-burning camping equipment inside a home, garage, vehicle or tent unless it is specifically designed for use in an enclosed space and provides instructions for safe use in an enclosed area.  • Never burn charcoal inside a home, garage, vehicle or tent.  • Never leave a car running in an attached garage, even with the garage door open.  • Never use gas appliances, such as ranges, ovens or clothes dryers to heat your home.  • Never operate un-vented fuel-burning appliances in any room where people are sleeping.  • During home renovations, ensure that appliance vents and chimneys are not blocked by tarps or debris. Make sure appliances are in proper working order when renovations are complete.  • Do not place generators in the garage or close to the home. People lose power in their homes and get so excited about using their gas-powered generator that they don't pay attention to where it is placed. The owner's manual should explain how far the generator should be from the home.  • Clean the chimney. Open the hatch at the bottom of the chimney to remove the ashes.  Hire a chimney sweep annually.  • Check vents. Regularly inspect your home's external vents to ensure they are not obscured by debris, dirt or snow.<br />   In summary, carbon monoxide is a dangerous poison that can be created by various household appliances. CO detectors must be placed strategically throughout the home or business in order to alert occupants of high levels of the gas.</p></div></div> </div> <span class="field field-name-uid field-formatter-author field-type-entity-reference field-label-hidden"><span lang="" about="/user/2" typeof="schema:Person" property="schema:name" datatype="">steve</span></span> <span class="field field-name-created field-formatter-timestamp field-type-created field-label-hidden">Thu, 11/23/2017 - 00:45</span> <section class="field field-node--field-blog-comments field-formatter-comment-default field-name-field-blog-comments field-type-comment field-label-above display-mode-threaded comment-bundle-comment comment-wrapper"> <a name="comments"></a></section> Thu, 23 Nov 2017 05:45:29 +0000 steve 2115 at http://veeshomeinspections.com